Rooting: A process similar to jailbreaking for hacking Android devices, game consoles, and so on. "Rooting" and "jailbreaking" are often used interchangeably.
Root: The "superuser" on various operating systems such as Android, iOS, and Mac OS X. When you gain "root" access via jailbreaking or rooting, you can access and modify every file on your gadget.
Cydia: A popular "unofficial" app store for jailbroken iOS devices.
CyanogenMod: A custom version of Android available for rooted Android phones and tablets.